Coalition for Recreation Trails "Tom Petri" award

NOHVCC's Great Trails book awarded the Coalition for Recreational Trails "Tom Petri" award for outstanding Education and Communication project.

More information about the award and the Coalition for Recreational Trails (CRT) can be found here.

Coalition for Recreation Trails Annual Achievement Awards to recognize outstanding trail projects funded by the national Recreational Trails Program (RTP), June 8, 2016.

Best Off-road Advocacy Initiative

Given that the threats to our sport are greater than ever before, the efforts of pro-OHV groups are producing more creative initiatives, stronger engagement tactics and better results than previously seen. The off-road community as a whole is doing a great job of banding together, with numerous local, state, and national groups working hard to preserve the future of two-wheeled recreation. We’ve seen a lot of great projects, but one that sticks out in our heads as deserving a mention is the National Off-Highway Vehicle Conservations Council’s new guidebook Great Trails: Providing Quality OHV Trails and Experiences. Developed by NOHVCC using a core team of expert consultants, the book has been written to provide guidance on every phase of creating new trails, from the planning and design of a trail you want to ride to the physical building of water bars, bridges, and trailheads to keeping the trail systems well maintained. The book has a massive amount of information and is most definitely going to become a staple for all off-road motorcycle riders who want to properly and effectively help expand the sport while also working to preserve what we have. Each book costs $30, but you can find all of the content up on the NOHVCC website as well. Kudos to the NOHVCC team on a job well done; the sport is better off with your having done this!

Best and Worst of 2015, Dirt Rider Magazine, Feb/Mar 2016 issue
Download PDF file

Great Trails:

Providing Quality OHV Trails and Experiences

A resource guide for the design, planning, construction, maintenance, and management of quality off-highway vehicle trail systems which are sustainable and fun to ride.

Written by: Dick Dufourd

In association with the National Off-Highway Vehicle Conservation Council (NOHVCC)
Graphics and Illustrations by Pass Designs
Book design and layout by Karen Kilker Designs
Website design and graphics by W Creative
Website layout and development by TnK Enterprises

© 2015 NOHVCC all rights reserved

Reproduction prohibited without permission of NOHVCC.


This book is dedicated to those people who strive to provide, promote, and protect off-highway vehicle recreation opportunities. Thank you for what you do for the OHV community.

Great trails don’t just happen. They are created, managed, and maintained through vision, passion, and sound engineering.


Dick Dufourd
Dick Dufourd
Dick Dufourd has been an avid motorized recreationist for more than 40 years and participates in every OHV segment from motorcycles to ATVs to snowmobiles to 4-wheel-drive vehicles. He has a strong recreation engineering background and spent 35 years with the USDA Forest Service where he gained extensive experience designing and building roads, trails, parking areas, and campgrounds. He became the Central Oregon Interagency OHV Program Manager where he was responsible for developing and managing summer OHV opportunities for the USDI Bureau of Land Management and the USDA Forest Service. This included implementing seven OHV trail systems with 640 miles of trail and eight designated play areas. He secured more than $3 million in grants, developed volunteer programs and trail patrol programs, designed an OHV specific cattle guard, and developed trail grooming drags and other equipment. As the OHV Master Performer for the USDA Forest Service in the Pacific Northwest Region, he was able to consult widely and gain additional experience.

In 2005, Dick retired and formed an OHV consulting business with his wife and partner of 40 years. Through RecConnect LLC, he has gained broad experience in feasibility studies, site assessments, safety assessments, signing, planning, trail and facility design, location, construction oversight, and project management and has now implemented more than 1,500 miles of OHV trails in the United States and Canada. That experience plus the ability to successfully identify and mitigate issues, work with multiple agencies, and work positively with stakeholders and the media has made Dick one of the top OHV authorities in North America.

Joani Dufourd
Joani Dufourd
I would like to thank my wife and partner of 40 years, Joani, for her untiring support, guidance, and commitment. She shares the passion of trying to make a difference for the OHV community and has been at my side ready to do whatever had to be done as we put 1,500 miles of OHV trails on the ground. Few women would have endured the heat, cold, rain, snow, mud, dust, bugs, snakes, bears, and miles of hiking on a daily basis. As we sit down every day for lunch in the field, we are blessed to have each other and to have shared our experiences. Her constant smile and active participation has made it all fun.

Dick Dufourd


Barrett Brown
Single Track Tools- photographs
Cam Lockwood
USDA Forest Service- Trails Unlimited- photographs, information
Clif Koontz
Ride with Respect - photographs
Dave Hiatt
Oregon Department of Forestry- photographs, information
Doug Sorensen
Portal RV Resort- photographs
Drew Stoll
Great Outdoors Consultants- mapping content, information
Jahmaal Rebb
Oregon Department of Forestry- photographs
Karen Umphress
National Off-Highway Vehicle Conservation Council – photographs, content, review, managing editor
Kevin G. Meyer
Trail Ecology Services - photographs, information, review
Jack Terrell
National Off-Highway Vehicle Conservation Council – review
Marc Hildesheim
National Off-Highway Vehicle Conservation Council – review, information
Max C. Reid
USDA Forest Service retired - photographs, information
Minnesota DNR
Parks and Trails Division - photographs, information
Rob Norbutt
The Infinity Machine - photographs
Royce Wood
American Motorcyclist Association – initiative, support
Russ Ehnes
National Off-Highway Vehicle Conservation Council - photographs, guidance, support
Shan More
Dirt Rider Magazine – photos
Todd Wernex
Idaho Department of Parks and Recreation - photographs, information
Tom Crimmins
Crimmins Consulting – information, review
Tom Niemela
Oregon Motorcycle Riders Association - photographs
Tony Dipino
Sutter Equipment - photographs
Woody Keen
Trail Wisdom - photographs, information, review

A note from NOHVCC: This book was written by Dick Dufourd with contributions from those listed above. But the tools, processes, practices, etc. included in the book are the result of the cumulative efforts of an untold number of unnamed people. These people are land managers, enthusiasts, industry representatives, and other stakeholders who have worked towards furthering the vision of NOHVCC, creating a positive future for OHV recreation. We wish to thank and acknowledge all of those pioneers who laid the ground work on which this guide was built. And we salute the people who are currently working to improve OHV recreation and those who will do so in the future.


The photographs used in this book are just that; photographs. They are used as an example to clarify text. Unless otherwise noted, the photos do not represent a particular site nor are they intended to reflect on the management, operation, or maintenance of any site. The photos are taken out of context and merely show conditions that can be anywhere and are everywhere.

Any brand names used or depicted do not represent an endorsement of the manufacturer.


Thank you to the following for their funding and support of this project:
Amateur Riders Motorcycle Association (AMA District 23) American Motorcyclist Association
Arizona State Parks Bureau of Land Management (BLM)
Canadian Off-Highway Vehicle Distributors Council Federal Highway Administration
Golden Eagles Motorcycle Club Idaho State Parks and Recreation
International Off-Highway Vehicle Administrators Association Kawasaki Corporation
Maine Department of Conservation Maryland State Highway Administration
Massachusetts Department of Conservation and Recreation Michigan Department of Natural Resources
Minnesota Department of Natural Resources Montana State Parks
Montana Trail Vehicle Riders Association Motorcycle Industry Council
New Mexico Game and Fish Ohio Motorized Trail Association
Oregon Motorcycle Riders Association Polaris Foundation
Recreational Off-Highway Vehicle Association Right Rider Access Fund
Specialty Vehicle Institute of America Texas Parks and Wildlife
United Four Wheel Drive Associations US Forest Service
Utah State Parks Yamaha Outdoor Access Initiative

This guide was produced, in part, with financial support from the Recreational Trails Program of the Federal Highway Administration US Department of Transportation. It would not have happened without the leadership and support of the National Off-Highway Vehicle Conservation Council (NOHVCC).

In our fast-paced hectic society, it has never been more important to recreate; to immerse ourselves in an activity other than work with our family and friends and plunge ourselves into a different realm. Indeed, recreation is really re-creation: the act of rejuvenating our minds and bodies. Most people who recreate in the great outdoors utilize trails to enhance their experience, and they especially enjoy a great trail. A great off-highway vehicle (OHV) trail offers an outstanding recreation experience, but it can trigger something deeper than that; an emotion, an inspiration; the WOW, that invigorating, re-creating feeling. What made that trail so great and what created that feeling? A multitude of physical, subliminal, and emotional elements triggered that WOW feeling. How can it be re-created?

This book offers guidance on the planning, design, and construction process, using proven principles and techniques, to create a great OHV trail on the ground. But it goes beyond that. Creating a great OHV trail is one thing, but keeping it great for the long term is another. How can the trail be managed and maintained to preserve that special quality? What can be done with an existing trail to make it the best that it can be?

While it is difficult to teach creativity, managers can learn about the elements, tools, and techniques they can incorporate into a project to help ensure its quality and success. With the right mix of those elements and with the right frame of mind, the outcome just may be creative.

The Great Trail Continuum
The Great Trail Continuum
Traditionally, trail planning, design, construction, maintenance, and management are separate processes. Most agencies fund these steps separately and often different departments within the agency handle each one. However, to have a truly great tail system, it is important to realize that all of these steps are really components of one process: the process of creating a great OHV trail. Each component must be implemented effectively or the whole project could fail. There have been trails planned and designed well, but poorly constructed; and there have been trails planned, designed, and constructed well, but poorly maintained or managed. The result may not be failure in all cases, but it isn’t total success either. The trail may not meet the riders’ needs, may not be sustainable, and may be costly to maintain. The outcome is dependent on the sum of its parts. This book integrates those components into one process and one thought pattern.

Creative vision: Is this just a tree to be cut out of the way of the flagline, or is it an opportunity to create a technical challenge feature for an ROV trail?
Creative vision: Is this just a tree to be cut out of the way of the flagline, or is it an opportunity to create a technical challenge feature for an ROV trail?
Many books are available about trails, but from an OHV perspective, the information out there is: a) not relative to OHVs; b) out of date since technology or best management practices have changed; or c) not current since off-highway vehicle types and the vehicles themselves have changed. What was state-of-the-art technology 20 years ago may or may not be valid today. Certainly, the vehicle types have changed. Thirty years ago, motorcycles dominated the market and all-terrain vehicles (ATV) were an emerging market. Over time, motorcycle sales have flattened, ATV sales have soared and flattened, and recreational off-highway vehicles (ROV) are the booming emerging market. Trail planning, design, construction, maintenance, and management techniques all need to change to adjust to the changing market and ensure that what is on the ground provides quality, sustainable recreation opportunities. Change will always occur, but the principles presented in this book will provide resiliency to that change.

The balance of a great trail
The balance of a great trail
In starting to write this book, the question was: Is an OHV-specific design guide needed? The answer was a resounding “Yes.” Off-highway vehicle modality is vastly different than any other recreation trail modality. Motorized vehicles have motors and this is a critical difference. With the motor comes the desire to use it. With power assistance, OHV riders can climb, tackle technical terrain, and travel farther in a single day than any other user group. Most also desire to challenge their vehicles as well as themselves. All of this creates trail system planning and design considerations unique to OHVs. More physical, displacing forces are being delivered to the ground making trail design and durability a critical factor. Most OHV trails are wider than non-motorized trails and they collect and channel more water, which needs to be mitigated through proper location, design, and engineering. All of this necessitates more emphasis on effective OHV management, maintenance, and thorough trail system planning. The wide variety of motorized vehicle types and activity types generates the need for multiple sets of design parameters to address trail width, clearing, grade, obstacles, drainage, hardening, etc. While many design principles and techniques may be similar to those for non-motorized trails, the scope and complexity of those applications is much broader with OHVs.

Across the country, each trail has a unique combination of soil, topography, vegetation, and climate, so there cannot only be one tool in the tool box to solve a problem. Also, the tools used in one place may not be the same tools used on another trail in a similar situation. The need for a variety of tools and options is also driven by the huge regional diversity in OHV use types, numbers and concentration of riders, private and public land ownership mix, state and provincial laws, and agency policies. Rather than offer charts and tables filled with values that may be meaningless to a manager’s situation, this book offers a thought process to help the technician or manager understand the use, the riders’ needs, the natural environment, and the physical forces being applied to any given trail. With this understanding, the technician or manager can predict effects and make informed decisions. There are principles and guidelines, but few absolute rights and wrongs. Rather, there are choices: If I do this, what will be the effect? Because we all live in the real world, the best solution might not be possible.

What makes a great trail great? Understanding, knowledge, engineering, passion, vision, creativity and conscientiousness.
What makes a great trail great? Understanding, knowledge, engineering, passion, vision, creativity and conscientiousness.
There is a main theme running through this book: provide for the riders’ needs while ensuring resource protection. Applying this theme from planning to maintenance will help OHV managers achieve success, provide a high-quality recreation experience for the riders, and ensure resource protection.

The WOW factor is an important aspect of trails. WOW is relative depending on the age, skill level, and the desired recreation experience of the rider. When managers create a high-quality trail, thousands of people will ride that trail and have smiles on their faces at the end of it. That is a WOW for them and for the OHV manager. WOW generates energy, project support, compliance, volunteerism, and increased funding opportunities; all key elements in a successful project and successful OHV program.

Please note that for the purposes of this book, the term “OHV” refers to off-highway motorcycles (OHM), all-terrain vehicles (ATV) or quads, recreational off-highway vehicles (ROV), also known as utility vehicles or side-by-sides, and four-wheel drive vehicles (4WD). The term does not include snowmobiles or other over-snow vehicles.

Each chapter contains at least one of several insets:
Plan trails the right way or your riders may take a bad turn
Plan trails the right way or your riders may take a bad turn

  • A Look Back—a summary of key talking points
  • A Second Look—a photo or subject that has been brought up before, but is discussed again with a different option or viewpoint
  • A Closer Look—a subject that is brought up in the chapter, but is highlighted in more detail
  • A Case in Point—an actual example of a talking point discussed in the chapter
  • Tips, Tricks, or Traps—key points for success or failure
  • Need More? Learn More Here —key references that are applicable to the chapter material

Now, let’s start down that trail to success. . . .

There are many terms and acronyms used in this book. This glossary defines an number of them. If you find a term that you need a definition to and it is not listed in this glossary, please drop us a note at and we will be glad to respond with a definition for you.

American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials.
The predecessor of the clinometer; measures percent and degrees of slope. It is larger and requires both hands to use, but when calibrated properly, it can be more accurate than a clinometer and it doesn’t require binocular vision to use.
The foundation or substructure that bears the weight of a structure.
The entity responsible for managing or administering the project site.
All-Terrain Vehicle
ATV. A motorized off-highway vehicle designed to travel on four low pressure tires, having a seat designed to be straddled by the operator and handlebars for steering control.
belted waterbar
A strip of conveyor belt sandwiched between two pieces of treated lumber and buried in the trail tread with just the belting exposed. The belting is stiff enough to direct water off the trail, but is flexible enough so that vehicles can easily cross it.
Best Management Practices (BMPs)
State-of-the-art techniques or philosophies to help ensure resource protection, sustainability, and management success.
blowdown (windfall, deadfall)
Trees, limbs, or brush blown down or broken off by an event of nature.
A short wood or metal post buried in the ground and used as a barrier to block or delimit vehicle access. Some are placed and locked into receptacles so they can be removed to allow administrative access.
buffer zone
An area usually of a fixed width around a sensitive property where access or activities are restricted or prohibited.
control point
Points, lines, or polygons that affect where a trail is located. Positive control points are places where the trail has to go or the designer wants the trail to go (trail termini, saddles, cliffs, creek crossings, road crossings, viewpoints, features that will enhance the rider experience). Negative control points are places where the trail should not or cannot go (wet areas, flat areas, sensitive resource areas, fall lines, property or project boundaries, features that will detract from the rider experience).
critical vehicle
The vehicle used to design a structure or facility. Usually, it is the longest, widest, and heaviest vehicle expected to use the facility. Choosing the wrong critical vehicle can adversely affect the functionality of the facility.
Any line that is bent into an arc and is not straight. Any three points not in a row define a curve.
A horizontal alignment that is predominately curves rather than tangents.
double track (dual track)
A trail with or wide enough for two parallel tracks. Its wider tread is designed for vehicles with an axle and three or more wheels. ATV, ROV, and 4WD vehicles use double track trails.
dual sport bike
A street-legal motorcycle that is built for the trail as well as the pavement.
A bypass or alternate route around a challenge feature. This helps protect the integrity of the challenge feature and allows a group of riders with different skill levels to ride together.
The removal of soil and rock particles by the forces of wind and water. It is a natural process that cannot be stopped but can be managed. The forces of vehicle tires can accelerate erosion, but sustainable design practices and techniques can mitigate those effects and decrease the rate of erosion.
An element in determining trail difficulty or challenge. Exposure is the risk of vehicle damage, personal injury, or death if the rider fails to negotiate the trail.
fall line
The direction or path that water takes to run down a slope. Trails located on the fall line will intercept water, which could lead to erosion. The steeper the grade, the more it approaches the fall line.
A technical feature at the entrance of a trail that indicates the challenge and skill level required ahead. Those riders who cannot traverse the filter should ride another trail. Under-skilled riders can create severe impacts attempting to negotiate challenge features. A filter reduces use, protects the integrity of the trail, potentially increases rider safety, and helps the agency manage its risk.
The rhythm of the trail created by repetitive horizontal and vertical undulations in the trail alignment that allow speed to be maintained without harsh braking or accelerating. It creates a smooth and fun trail experience.
Trail alignment that provides high flow and allows the rider to carry his or her momentum through curves or up short grades. Flowmentum increases the fun factor and can decrease tread impacts and maintenance costs.
a broad-leaved herb growing in a field, prairie, or meadow.
Four-Wheel Drive vehicle
4WD. A full-sized motorized vehicle, usually wider than 60 inches.
The amount of elevation change between two points expressed as a percentage. Often referred to as rise over run, it is the elevation change between the two points divided by the horizontal distance between the two points.
grade break
The point where there is a change in the prevailing grade to either steeper or flatter grade. Both are places where there could be an opportunity to drain water off the trail.
grade reversal
Changing the vertical alignment of the trail from negative to positive grade for a sufficient distance and elevation to force water off the trail. As used in this book, a grade reversal is a natural feature designed into the trail layout. It does not refer to a drain dip or rolling dip that is constructed into trail.
high-density polyethylene
HDPE. A tough plastic used in plastic culverts, arches, and other materials. It is also a common substrate for signs.
horizontal alignment
The series of tangents and curves that form the plan view of the trail.
A section of trail that is removed to allow water to drain from the trail tread.
A line is a connection between any two points. A line may also be the path of a trail or the path a rider takes (i.e. riders’ eyes scan for the easiest line to follow in rough terrain)
A horizontal alignment that is predominately tangents rather than curves.
Maintenance Level 2 (ML2) road
USDA Forest Service roads open for use by high-clearance vehicles and not suitable for passenger cars. Low traffic volume and low speed roads; surface smoothness is not a consideration.
Maintenance Level 3 (ML3) road
USDA Forest Service roads open and maintained for travel by prudent drivers in standard passenger cars. Subject to the requirements of the Highway Safety Act.
An action taken to lessen or eliminate potentially adverse impacts from a management action, recreation use, or design choice.
mixed-use road
A road that is open for use by highway legal and non-highway legal motor vehicles.
motocross (MX) track
A closed course consisting of a compressed winding dirt track with hills, jumps, hairpin turns, and whoops.
National Environmental Policy Act. The process of analyzing and evaluating the environmental effects of a ground-disturbing project on federal land.
NOHVCC Management Solutions. A consulting service of NOHVCC.
National Off-Highway Vehicle Conservation Council.
Off-Highway Motorcycle
OHM. A motorcycle designed to be used off-highway. Also referred to as trail bike, dirt bike, or enduro bike. Can also be a dual-sport bike or a trials bike.
Off-Highway Vehicle. For the purposes of this book, OHV refers to an ATV, 4WD, OHM, or ROV.
OHV specialist
A person with knowledge and experience in OHV recreation, management, planning, project implementation, and operations and maintenance.
Professional Trail Builders Association.
The distance from the center of a circle to any point on the circle. The radius of a circle is half of the diameter.
Recreation Off-highway Vehicle
ROV. Often referred to as side-by-side or UTV (Utility Type Vehicle). ROVs are motorized off-road vehicles designed to travel on four or more tires, intended by the manufacturer primarily for recreational use by one or more persons and having the following characteristics: a steering wheel for steering control; a Roll Over Protective Structure complying with ANSI/ROHVA-1, an Occupant Retention System complying with ANSI/ROHVA-1; non-straddle seating; maximum speed capability greater than 30 mph; less than 80” in overall width, exclusive of accessories; engine displacement of less than 1,000cc; identification by means of a 17 character PIN or VIN.
Recreation Opportunity Spectrum
ROS. A recreation planning land classification system that defines an area by the probable recreation experience it provides in terms of setting and level of development. The setting is measured by the number of people expected, producing different levels of solitude and the evidence of human use as shown by management activities and degree of development. There are six settings ranging from Primitive to Urban.
The ability of a surface to return light back to its original source. Retroreflective signs and pavement markings bounce light from vehicle headlights back toward the vehicle and the drivers’ eyes, making signs and pavement markings more visible, brighter, and easier to read for the driver.
An eroded groove or channel created by moving water. Their size can vary from being barely visible to being several feet deep.
Relating to a habitat rich in flora and fauna that is adjacent to lakes, streams, and other bodies of water.
riparian zone
The vegetated area along water bodies that generally consists of trees, shrubs, and grasses that are the interface and transition between the upland and water environments. In some areas, policy and legislation set the width of the riparian zone.
road authority
The agency or entity who either owns the road or is responsible for its operation, maintenance, and management.
rock garden
A section of trail composed almost entirely of loose or embedded cobble rock or boulders. Removing one rock only exposes another rock so the rocks keep coming to the surface like flower buds in a garden.
rolling dip
A drainage structure usually added to an existing trail to reduce the size of the tread watershed. It involves excavating a sag and building up a crest to create a flattened or reverse grade to help drain water off the trail. To stay functional, a rolling dip requires regular inspection and maintenance.
The removal of soil particles due to the velocity and volume of water.
serpentine (curvy, snaky)
Trails with back-to-back curves with short or no tangents. A serpentine alignment contributes to flow and fun factor.
single track
A narrow trail with only one track or tread to ride. Designed and intended for single-file motorcycle use.
slick rock
A term used to describe the red smooth slab rock in the canyon country of the southwestern United States. It is generally sandstone and it is not slick, even when wet.
staging area
Similar to a trailhead except that in addition to providing access to trails, it can also provide access to other activities like MX, endurocross, training areas, and concessions. A staging area has a large parking area and is used to conduct events so there may be a pit area, starting area, gas row, spectator area, etc.
Individuals, groups, or entities that have a direct and active interest in the project site. This could include riding clubs, private inholders, range permittees, timber interests, mining interests, irrigation districts, other tenure holders, neighboring residents, utility companies with corridors through the project site, etc.
The base material used for signs; usually wood, plywood, fiberglass, polyplate, high-density polyethylene plastic, or aluminum.
superelevated turn
A curve where the outside of the tread is higher than the inside; banked or insloped. It offsets centrifugal forces and allows riders to carry their speed through a turn. It can reduce tread impacts from braking and accelerating and increase flow and fun factor.
A straight line or straight trail alignment. The line between any two points is a tangent.
Threatened, endangered, and sensitive plant or animal species.
An access point to a trail or trail system. Used predominately for casual or recreation use rather than competitive or event use. Common amenities include a parking area, kiosk, and toilet. Some have an adjacent campground or area for dispersed camping.
trail log
A list of construction details or work items that a designer prepares for the construction crew or contractor. The items are usually listed by mile point, GPS waypoint, or station (one station = 100 feet, so station 13+50 is 1350 feet in from the beginning of the project).
tread watershed
The area between tread drainage points that collects water onto or drains water into the trail. This includes the area of the trail itself and the area above the trail that topographically drains into this trail segment.
A designed and constructed area wide enough for two vehicles to pass. A turnout can be any length, but the minimum length is that which accommodates one designed vehicle. A turnout usually has ingress and egress transitions called tapers. A turnout can be desirable in areas of thick vegetation or steep topography.
vertical alignment
The series of tangents and curves that form the profile view of the trail.
A drainage structure used to divert water off the trail tread. The trail is outsloped at a 30 to 45 degree angle followed by a barrier of dirt, rock, logs, or rubber belting material. Waterbars are high maintenance and are not recommended on OHV trails.

There are a number of publications referenced throughout the Great Trails book. These pulications can and often do expand on a topic covered in this book that may be helpful to you.

  • A Citizen’s Guide to the NEPA, Council on Environmental Quality, December, 2007.
  • A Comprehensive Framework for Off-Highway Vehicle Trail Management, Kevin G. Meyer, USDA Forest Service, Missoula Technology & Development Center, July 2011.
  • Alaska Trails Training Modules, Mike Shields,
    • Backcountry Stream Crossings
    • Slope Structures and Trail Stability
    • Trail Design and Layout
    • Trail Drainage: Structures and Hydrology
    • Trail Treadway Structures
    • Turns: Design and Layout
  • Alpine Loop ATV’s and Unlicensed Motorcycles Summer Travel Routes, Gunnison National Forest/Bureau of Land Management.
  • ATV Braking Data, Sign Recognition Analysis and Validation, Final Report, Mark D. Osborne and Russ G. Alger, Michigan Tech, Keweenaw Research Center, March 2014.
  • Best Maintenance Practices, Maine Motorized Trail Construction and Maintenance Manual, Bureau of Parks & Lands, Off-Road Division, May 2011.
  • Designing Sustainable Off-Highway Vehicle Trails, An Alaska Trail Manager’s Perspective, Kevin G. Meyer, USDA Forest Service, Technology & Development Program, 1123-2804P-MTDC, November 2013.
  • Equestrian Trail Guidelines for Construction and Maintenance, Missouri Department of Conservation, 2007.
  • Geosynthetics for Trails in Wet Areas: 2008 Edition, USDA Forest Service, Technology & Development Program, 0823-2813-MTDC, April 2008.
  • Guidelines for Road Maintenance Levels, USDA Forest Service, Technology & Development Program, 05771205-SDTDC, December 2005.
  • Locating Your Trail Bridge for Longevity, USDA Forest Service, Technology & Development Program, 1023-2808P-MTDC, June 2010.
  • Management Guidelines for OHV Recreation, Tom M. Crimmins, National Off-Highway Vehicle Conservation Council, 2006.
  • Managing Degraded Off-Highway Vehicle Trails in Wet, Unstable, and Sensitive Environments, USDA Forest Service, Technology & Development Program, 0223-2821-MTDC, October 2002.
  • Manual on Uniform Traffic Control Devices, U.S. Department of Transportation, Federal Highway Administration, May 2012.
  • Math is Fun, Pierce, Rod. Ed. Rod Pierce. 24 Oct 2013. 10 Nov 2013,
    • About Math Is Fun
    • Area of Circle, Triangle, Square, Rectangle, Parallelogram, Trapezium, Ellipse and Sector
    • Triangles—Equilateral, Isosceles and Scalene
  • Math World, Weisstein, Eric W.,
    • Equilateral Triangle
    • Isosceles Right Triangle
  • Natural Surface Trails by Design, Troy Scott Parker, Natureshape, LLC, 2004.
  • Off-Highway Motorcycle & ATV Trails: Guidelines for Design, Construction, Maintenance and User Satisfaction, 2nd Edition, Joe Wernex, American Motorcyclist Association, 1994.
  • Park Guidelines for OHVs, George E. Fogg, National Off-Highway Vehicle Conservation Council, 2002.
  • Recreational Trail Design—Online Content, Woodland Stewardship Org, University of Minnesota, 2011.
  • Rolling Dips for Drainage of OHV Trails, Roger Poff, USDA Forest Service, Pacific Southwest Region, 2006.
  • Sign and Poster Guidelines for the Forest Service, EM7100-15, USDA Forest Service, October 2013.
  • Standard Specifications for Construction and Maintenance of Trails, EM-7720-103, USDA Forest Service, 1996.
  • Standard Specifications for Construction of Trails and Trail Bridges on US Forest Service Projects, USDA Forest Service, National Technology & Development Program, Oct 2014,
  • SST Installation Guide, USDA Forest Service, Technology & Development Program,
  • Trail Bridge Catalog, USDA Forest Service,
  • Trail Construction and Maintenance Notebook, USDA Forest Service, Technology & Development Program, 0723-2806-MTDC, July 2007.
  • Trail Planning, Design, and Development Guidelines, State of Minnesota, Department of Natural Resources, Trails and Waterways Division, 2007.
  • Trails Management Handbook, FSH2309.18, USDA Forest Service.
  • Use of Chemical Additives to Stabilize Off-road Vehicle Trails, Davis, Baier, Fulton, Brown, McDonald, USDA Forest Service Southern Research Station, 2007. Source: Applied Engineering in Agriculture, Vol. 23(5): 597-602.
  • Water Harvesting from Low-Standard Rural Roads, Bill Zeedyk, Zeedyk Ecological Consulting, LLC, 2006.
  • Wetland Trail Design and Construction, USDA Forest Service, Technology and Development Program, 0123-2833-MTDC, September 2001.

A great trail lies lightly on the ground and flows and harmonizes with the landscape.

It is the path that takes us into the natural world and the pathway that links that world to our inner selves.